Skip to main content

Full text of "The red ocher culture of the upper Great Lakes and adjacent areas"

See other formats


Bound By 

BURGMEIER 

Book Bindery, Inc. 



CHICAGO NATURAL 
r y HISTORY MUSEUM 

IELDIANA • ANTHI^fO'l&GY 



F 



Published by 
CHICAGO NATURAL HISTORY MUSEUM 

Volume 36 March 27, 1962 No. 11 

THE RED OCHER CULTURE 

OF THE 

UPPER GREAT LAKES AND ADJACENT AREAS 

Robert E. Ritzenthaler 

Curator of Anthropology, Milwaukee Public Museum 
AND 

George I. Quimby 

Curator of North American Archaeology and Ethnology 
Chicago Natural History Museum 

Within the Upper Great Lakes and adjacent regions the Late 
Archaic and Early Woodland complex known as "Red Ocher" occurs 
sporadically. The bearers of this culture sprinkled powdered red 
ocher over the bodies of their deceased after placing them in graves. 
The relatively few sites and the considerable variation of the traits 
from site to site has made this one of the more elusive of the cultural 
complexes. It is found particularly in Wisconsin, Michigan, Illinois, 
Iowa, Indiana, and Ohio. 

It is our purpose to define tentatively the Red Ocher culture 
by the analysis of information from all site reports that have come 
to our attention, and to plot its distribution. We began our survey 
of this culture in 1957, using published accounts and museum collec- 
tions. Our inventory of sites that we consider to be Red Ocher is 
only partially complete but we believe it to be adequate for our 
purposes. 

The term "Red Ocher" was first used in 1937 by Cole and Deuel 
(1937, p. 202) and a preliminary description of the complex was 
made in terms of data from three sites in central Illinois (F°ll, 
lower component of F°14, and F°563). Some additional sites have 
since been recognized as Red Ocher because of their cultural sim- 
ilarity to those described by Cole and Deuel. However, there has 
not been thus far any broad synthesis of the existing information 
on the Red Ocher culture and it is often easily confused with its 

Library of Congress Catalog Card Number: 62-15263 
No. 949 243 



244 FIELDIANA: ANTHROPOLOGY, VOLUME 36 

twin (fraternal, not identical), the Glacial Kame culture. Our own 
uncertainty as to what constituted the Red Ocher culture led us 
to make this study. 

The Red Ocher culture consists of a series of overlapping associ- 
ations of marginal traits based on a core of nuclear traits that include 
the following: flexed burials in pits on ridges of sand, gravel, or loess; 
powdered red ocher in grave; "turkey-tail" blades of chipped blue- 
gray flint; rather large lanceolate ceremonial knives of whitish flint; 
and caches of ovate-trianguloid points. 

In our survey of information dealing with the Red Ocher complex 
we listed any site that we suspected might belong to this complex. 
Some of these sites were subsequently removed from the list because 
analysis of their traits showed they were not Red Ocher. One diffi- 
culty has been the fact that red ocher was spread on burials in 
numerous other cultures; and although the use of red ocher in graves 
achieved its first major popularity in the time of the Red Ocher 
culture, this trait persisted down to the period of European contact 
with native American cultures. On the other hand, there are some 
Red Ocher sites that did not have red ocher present in burials yet 
produced other nuclear traits indicative of the Red Ocher culture. 

Another difficulty that we encountered was that many of the 
published accounts, particularly those written between 1877 and 
1937, contained inadequate descriptions of artifacts; the circum- 
stances of the finds were also often omitted or not detailed. Most 
of the finds were the accidental discoveries of farmers, contractors, 
and collectors, and although some artifacts reached museums where 
they can be re-examined today, much of this material can no longer 
be traced. 

THE CULTURAL ASSEMBLAGE OF RED OCHER 

We have eliminated Adena from our consideration of Red Ocher 
as a distinct assemblage. Although Red Ocher traits may appear 
occasionally in Early Adena we believe this to be the result of diffu- 
sion from Red Ocher to Early Adena or possibly the result of some 
Red Ocher ancestry in Adena. In any event we do not consider 
Adena a part of our problem at this time. Glacial Kame, which 
easily can be confused with Red Ocher, we shall consider presently. 

A comparison of the traits exhibited in the sites presented in our 
sample suggests that a concept of the Red Ocher cultural assemblage 
must be based on a series of traits that overlap variably from one 
manifestation to another (see table, pp 266-271). After preliminary 







4 

*1 



245 



246 FIELDIANA: ANTHROPOLOGY, VOLUME 36 




Fig. 114. Large ceremonial blades from Carey site, Wisconsin. Blade at left 
14 inches long. 

analysis of our trait lists it seemed useful to divide Red Ocher 
traits into two categories — nuclear and peripheral. By "nuclear" 
we mean the basic or core traits that turn up consistently. They 
are always or nearly always present. An example is the use of 
red ocher in the burial procedure. 

In addition to the nuclear traits there are peripheral or fringe 
traits that sporadically occur in association with the nuclear traits. 
Birdstones seem to be an example. Peripheral traits are thus either 
of rare occurrence or less consistent in appearance than the nuclear. 

Nuclear Traits 

1. Use of a layer of red ocher (hematite) to cover grave. This 
often seeps down to stain the bone or artifacts or both. 

2. Burials in flexed position, in pits, in sand. While several 
cremations and several bundle burials have been reported, 
the usual burial method is flexure. 



RITZENTHALER AND QUIMBY: RED OCHER CULTURE 247 

The presence of large (some are 19 inches in length), "cere- 
monial," whitish-flint blades, ellipsoidal in shape with a taper 
toward a truncated base (figs. 113 and 114). Primary flaking 
with secondary retouching. Solutrean in feel. Some are killed. 

"Turkey-tail" blades of hornstone, a bluish-gray chert from 
southern Indiana. Collector's term based on resemblance of 
halting end to the tail of a dressed turkey. Side-notched, 
ellipsoidal shape. Primary and secondary chipping. Fine 
workmanship. Usually occur in small caches (fig. 116). A 
similar type except for a stemmed tang also occurs and we 
have termed it the modified turkey-tail (fig. 116, center). 

Small, unnotched, ovate-trianguloid chert knives or points. 
Secondary retouching. Somewhat crude. Majority are asym- 
metrical, suggesting usage as knife or scraper (figs. 115 and 
123). Some may be blanks for stemmed or notched points. 
Occur in large caches (115 at Andrews site). 






;r 



Fig. 115. Ovate-trianguloid points from Thiensville site, Wisconsin. Length, 
1 to 1 % inches. 






Fig. 116. Turkey-tail blades, top and bottom; modified turkey-tail blade in 
center. Dyer site, Indiana. Blade at top 5}4 inches long. 



248 



RITZENTHALER AND QUIMBY: RED OCHER CULTURE 249 





Fig. 117. Turkey-tail blade (bottom) and modified turkey-tail blade from 
Thiensville site, Wisconsin. Blade at bottom 8 inches long. 

6. Presence of worked copper, usually thick rolled or thinner 
tubular beads (fig. 118) but occasionally awls, celts, knives 
(fig. 119) or points. 

7. Tubular marine shell beads. 

There are three distinctive nuclear traits which we consider to 
be diagnostic of Red Ocher and which occur in no other cultural 
assemblages with which we have made comparisons. The three 
traits are the large ceremonial blades (figs. 113 and 114), the ovate- 
trianguloid knives (fig. 115), and the turkey-tails (figs. 116 and 117). 

Peripheral Traits 

The following elements are occasionally found in association with 
the nuclear traits: 

1. Interment in mounds. 

2. Use of cremation or bundle reburial method of interment. 

3. Presence of un worked galena cubes. 

4. Circular or ovate shell gorgets. 

5. Birdstones (fig. 121). 



250 



FIELDIANA: ANTHROPOLOGY, VOLUME 36 




Fig. 118. Copper beads from Dyer site, Indiana. 



6. Bar amulets (fig. 122). 

7. Three hole rectanguloid gorgets (fig. 123, center). 

8. Tube pipes. 

9. Grooved axes. 

10. Celts. 

11. Early Woodland pottery. 

Thus Red Ocher may be described as a culture revealed solely 
through caches and a burial complex in which a number of con- 
sistent interment practices appear, accompanied by a comparatively 
small assemblage of artifacts, three of which appear to be diagnostic. 



RITZENTHALER AND QUIMBY: RED OCHER CULTURE 251 






Fig. 119. 
inches long. 



Copper awl and copper celts from Dyer site, Indiana. Awl 4% 



The sites in our sample are distributed from eastern Iowa to 
central Ohio and from southern Ohio to the Manitoulin District of 
Ontario. Most of the sites, however, seem to be in southeastern 
Wisconsin, northern Illinois, northern Indiana, and the southern 
half of the Lower Peninsula of Michigan. In much of this area 
Red Ocher is a co-occupant with Glacial Kame. 

If, as now seems probable, the final phase of Old Copper merges 
into both Red Ocher and Glacial Kame, then there is to be expected 




Fig. 120. Beads of marine shell from Thiensville site, Wisconsin. 




Fig. 121. Birdstone 3% inches long, made of slate; from Carey site, Wis- 
consin. 



252 



RITZENTHALER AND QUIMBY: RED OCHER CULTURE 253 

a point at which the remnants of Old Copper and its budding off- 
springs, Red Ocher and Glacial Kame, are inextricably mixed. This 
might be the case at the Reigh site in Wisconsin, at which the 
first excavations produced among other things a sandal-sole gorget, 




Fig. 122. Bar amulet 6% inches long, made of slate; from Dyer site, Indiana. 

shell beads, copper implements, and burial practices suggestive of 
Glacial Kame (Baerreis et al., 1954, p. 34). Subsequent finds at this 
site, however, included copper crescents, copper socket-tanged points, 
and copper spuds which thus far have occurred only in "pure" 
Old Copper sites. The sandal-sole gorget was not directly associated 
with Old Copper artifacts, however, and it is possible that two com- 
ponents exist at this site. 

To summarize our position: "If the Glacial Kame and Red Ocher 
peoples were not actually physical and cultural descendants of the 
Old Copper folk, they were certainly followers of the basic cultural 
traditions." (Ritzenthaler, 1957, pp. 278-279.) 

RED OCHER AND GLACIAL KAME 

Red Ocher culture is very similar to Glacial Kame culture (cf. 
Cunningham, 1948) and they overlap spatially as well as temporally. 
In southern Michigan, northern Illinois, parts of Ohio, and northern 
Indiana, Red Ocher and Glacial Kame sites exist in the same areas. 
For instance, there is in Lake County, northern Illinois, a Glacial 
Kame site within a few miles of a Red Ocher site. This Glacial 
Kame site is near Half Day in the Des Plaines Valley. In the summer 
of 1959 commercial stripping operations uncovered burials in a deep 
gravel deposit. The information regarding them was obtained through 
the interest and observations of Mr. James R. Getz, who conducted 
archaeological salvage operations at this site. 

In a grave or graves dug into the gravel were the skeletons of 
four adults and two children covered with powdered red ocher. 



^9 6 ^k B ^ts^ 





Fig. 123. Red Ocher artifacts from Thiensville site, Wisconsin. The turkey- 
tail blade, bottom row, center, is 8 inches long. 



254 



RITZENTHALER AND QUIMBY: RED OCHER CULTURE 255 

The skeletons were flexed. Accompanying the dead were rolled copper 
beads and two gorgets made of marine shell, each about 6 inches 
long and shaped like the sole of a sandal, with 3 perforations along 
the midline. In this context the sandal-sole gorget of shell is the 




Fig. 124. Flint point \M inches long; 
from Dyer site, Indiana. 



trait that identifies the site as Glacial Kame. If instead of the 
sandal-sole gorgets there had been one or more turkey-tail blades, 
we would have assigned this site to the Red Ocher. 

This example illustrates the very close relationship of Early Red 
Ocher and Glacial Kame. As we said earlier, they are like fraternal 
twins. Most of the traits we have called marginal can occur in 
either Red Ocher or Glacial Kame. Assemblages of traits from these 
two cultures are much alike. However, we have not so far found 
any site of the two that contains either the turkey-tail blades or 
the large lanceolate ceremonial knife in association with the sandal- 
sole gorget. Thus we have concluded that if one finds a flexed burial 
in a gravel pit accompanied by red ocher, copper and shell beads, 
birdstones, copper axes and awls, and sandal-sole gorgets of shell, 
the culture is Glacial Kame. If, on the other hand, there are no 
sandal-sole gorgets, but there are turkey-tail blades or large cere- 
monial leaf-shaped blades, or perhaps a cache of ovate-trianguloid 
points, the culture is Red Ocher. 

If, in the future, sites are found in which sandal-sole gorgets 
and the diagnostic Red Ocher traits are in direct association, then 



256 FIELD IANA: ANTHROPOLOGY, VOLUME 36 

we shall be forced to conclude that Red Ocher and Glacial Kame 
were identical; but until that time we have two closely related but 
distinguishable cultures manifested primarily by their burial customs. 

There seem to be some Late Archaic cultures other than Glacial 
Kame that resemble Red Ocher culture and probably are related 
to it. We picked up some evidence of these in our preliminary 
inventories while we were searching for Red Ocher traits. We are 
not, however, prepared to deal with these cultures at the present 
time, and have eliminated them from the sample presented in this 
paper. 

TEMPORAL POSITION OF RED OCHER 

There are several ways to assess the age of the Red Ocher culture : 
geological relationships, archaeological stratigraphy, and radiocarbon 
dating. 

Quimby (1958) pointed out that a typical Red Ocher site in 
Manitowoc County, Wisconsin, was on the lakeward side of and 
below the level of the fossil beach marking the Algoma stage of the 
Upper Great Lakes and therefore that this site should be later than 
the Algoma beach. That the site could have been established earlier 
than the Algoma beach seemed very unlikely because in such an 
instance the site would also have to have been older than the Nip- 
issing stage of lake levels that were older and higher than Algoma. 
Although deep burials such as are customary in Red Ocher probably 
could have survived flooding on this shallow shoreline, it was felt 
that a pre-Nipissing date was too old. The Nipissing stage began 
at about 3000 B.C. (cf. Quimby, 1960b, pp. 16 and 25-26), and if 
Red Ocher were pre-Nipissing, it would be older than 3000 B.C. 
Since by virtue of their pottery the youngest Red Ocher sites 
are tied to Early Woodland horizons (ca. 500 to 100 B.C.) in the 
Upper Great Lakes region it seemed unreasonable to believe that 
the non-ceramic Red Ocher sites could be earlier than 3000 B.C. 
Thus we abandoned the possibility of a pre-Nipissing age for Red 
Ocher and concluded that Red Ocher could not be older than the 
Algoma stage, which began at about 1500 B.C. (Quimby, 1960b, 
pp. 17, 26). 

We knew that Red Ocher culture preceded Hopewell, because 
Cole and Deuel (1937, pp. 204-205) demonstrated this. Radio- 
carbon dating of the 1950's suggested that Hopewell culture began 
some time between 500 B.C. and 100 B.C. Thus with Red Ocher 
culture bracketed between the Algoma beach and the Hopewell 



RITZENTHALER AND QUIMBY: RED OCHER CULTURE 257 

culture, it should fall into a period between 1500 B.C. and 100 B.C. 
This in fact it does, as we shall show by two radiocarbon datings 
of Red Ocher culture. 

The Andrews site, a rich Red Ocher cultural manifestation in 
Saginaw County, Michigan, has been dated at 1210 B.C. plus or 
minus 300 years (M-659, Crane and Griffin, 1960, p. 34). The 
dating is based on human bone in association with red ocher burials, 
birdstones, and a variety of copper and flint artifacts illustrative 
of Red Ocher culture that were found in a sand ridge marking a 
stage of the Algoma beach at this place. The cultural remains 
themselves and the early date indicate that the Andrews site is 
Early Red Ochre. 

A Late Red Ocher site is the Sny-Magill Mound 43, in Clayton 
County, Iowa, dated at 470 B.C. plus or minus 250 years (M-305) 
and 540 B.C. plus or minus 250 years (M-308, Crane and Griffin 
1958, p. 1099). By virtue of the cultural content and date this 
Red Ocher manifestation belongs to the Early Woodland stage 
and /or period. 

A site which might be considered to be very late Red Ocher 
is the K.B. 1 mound at Killarney Bay in the Manitoulin District 
of Ontario. This mound has been dated at about 80 B.C. plus or 
minus 200 years (M-428, Crane and Griffin 1959, p. 183), and from 
what we know of the cultural content we judge this mound to be 
late in the Early Woodland period. 

In general, Late Red Ocher is characterized by the addition 
of burial mounds or certain kinds of pottery or possibly tubular 
pipes to various combinations of the nuclear and marginal traits 
typical of Early Red Ocher. Moreover, burial mounds and pottery 
are lacking in Early Red Ocher. 

It is our conclusion that Early Red Ocher, which is Late Archaic, 
lasted from some time between 1200 and 1500 B.C. to about 500 B.C., 
and that Late Red Ocher, which is Early Woodland, lasted from 
about 500 B.C. to 100 B.C. or slightly later. South of the Upper 
Great Lakes region these dates and periods may prove to be some- 
what earlier. The temporal position of Red Ocher and Glacial 
Kame lends credence to the thesis that these are transitional cul- 
ture growths with roots in Old Copper and branches in Woodland. 

The following section consists of summaries of the source materials 
upon which we have depended. They include publications, museum 
collections, and field work. 



258 FIELDIANA: ANTHROPOLOGY, VOLUME 36 

SITES AND FINDS IN WISCONSIN 

Carey site, Milwaukee County (see Brown, 1916, pp. 73-75). — 
Various commercial operations between 1904 and 1913 destroyed 
a number of burials in the Carey gravel pit. The following traits 
and /or artifacts were found by the workmen: Burials associated 
with artifacts; red ocher in the graves; 6 ceremonial blades, leaf- 
shaped, of white flint ranging in length from 8 to 14 inches (see fig. 
114); 15 ovate-trianguloid cache points; intentional breakage of 
blades prior to burial; 1 leaf-shaped blade of copper; 3 copper awls 5, 
6, and 113^ inches long; 50 spheroidal beads of copper 34 to % 
of an inch in diameter; 3 tubular beads of copper 1% to 23^ inches 
long; 5 shell beads; and 2 pop-eyed birdstones of ground slate 3^ 
(fig. 121) and 5% inches long. 

Layton Park site, Milwaukee County (see Brown, 1916, p. 39). — 
In 1892, while grading, workmen found at this site six turkey-tail 
blades of "blue hornstone" and a leaf-shaped ceremonial knife of 
light-colored flint. 

Thiensville site, Ozaukee County (see Ritzenthaler and Niehoff, 
1958, pp. 115-119; Niehoff, 1959, pp. 26-27).— This site, dug in 1958, 
consisted of 3 burials about 7 feet deep in a sand ridge. One burial 
was in flexed position, the other two may have been. Red ocher 
was abundant in the graves. Found with or near the burials were 
5 turkey-tail or modified turkey-tail blades of blue hornstone (figs. 117 
and 123); 1 side-notched blade of the same material (fig. 123); 
1 tanged blade of hornstone; 55 ovate-trianguloid cache points 
(figs. 115 and 123); 4 copper awls square in section and pointed 
at each end (fig. 123); a large number of spheroidal and tubular 
beads of copper; a large number of marine shell beads (fig. 120), 
both disk-shaped and spheroidal; some small cubes of galena; and 
a rectanguloid, 3-hole gorget of polished stone (fig. 123). 

Port Washington site, Ozaukee County (see Quimby, 1957, pp. 1-3). 
— The following artifacts were found with or near a burial in gravel 
4 to 6 feet deep: 4 large, leaf-shaped ceremonial blades of light- 
colored flint; 1 similar blade of copper; 20 ovate-trianguloid cache 
points; 1 modified turkey- tail blade of hornstone; 3 stemmed points 
of flint; 2 corner-notched points of flint; 1 copper celt; and 1 grooved 
axe of ground stone. 

Leon site, Sheboygan County (see Gerend, 1920, p. 189). — Some 
time prior to 1920 there were 18 blue hornstone knives (turkey- 
tails?) found with a burial in a gravel pit. 



RITZENTHALER AND QUIMBY: RED OCHER CULTURE 259 

Molash Creek site, Manitowoc County (see Quimby, 1958). — In 
1898 the following artifacts were found with or near a burial in 
a ridge of sand: 1 leaf -shaped ceremonial blade of whitish flint; 
a similar blade of copper; about 165 ovate- trianguloid cache points 
of chipped stone; 4 stemmed points of flint; 1 stone bead; and 110 
tubular and spheroidal beads of copper. There was evidence of red 
ocher on the skeleton and on some artifacts. 

Hathaway site, Manitowoc County (see Brown, 1907, p. 63; Falge, 
1915, p. 149). — A cache of 14 turkey-tail blades of blue hornstone 
was found in 1878 when struck by a plow. 

Whitefish Bay or Mashek site, Door County (see Brown, 1907, 
pp. 61-62, and 1924, p. 70; Shumacher, 1918, p. 141).— In 1905 a 
flexed burial was found by workmen who were cutting a road through 
a hill. With the burial were 15 turkey-tail knives of blue hornstone 
and a lanceolate, stemmed blade of gray flint. 

Stephensville site, Outagamie County (see Brown, 1907, p. 63, and 
1930, p. 103; Fox, 1916, p. 16).— A cache of 6 turkey-tail blades of 
blue hornstone ranging from 3% to 93^ inches in length was found 
with 7 flint and quartzite spearpoints some time before 1907 in sec- 
tion 18 of Ellington township. 

Chalk Hills site, Marinette County (see Brown, 1940, p. 75). — In 
1932, excavation of the undisturbed part of a burial mound on the 
banks of the Menominee River produced a single bundle burial 
stained with red ocher and 3 turkey-tail blades of blue hornstone. 

Wolf River site, Shawano County (see Brown, 1907, p. 68). — 
Some time prior to 1907 a cache of 40 ovate trianguloid points of 
brownish chert, 6 turkey-tail blades of blue hornstone, and 1 socketed 
copper point was found in a "pocket, 1% feet deep on the eastern 
bank of Wolf River." 

Wautoma site, Waushara County (see Brown, 1907, p. 61). — A 
cache of 9 turkey- tail (?) blades of blue hornstone was found near 
Wautoma some time prior to 1907. 

Paulsen Farm site, Calumet County (see Brown, 1907, p. 61). — 
About 1883, a cache of 22 turkey-tail(?) blades of blue hornstone 
was found beneath the roots of a black ash stump on the Paulsen 
farm. 

Fond du Lac site, Fond du Lac County (see Brown, 1915, p. 179). — 
A large, leaf-shaped ceremonial blade of light-colored flint 10 inches 
long was found in 1891 in a gravel pit that contained burials. 



260 FIELD IANA: ANTHROPOLOGY, VOLUME 36 

Bartell site, Dodge County (see Brown, 1915, pi. 5 and pp. 177- 
178). — In 1911, a leaf -shaped ceremonial blade 12^ inches long of 
light-colored flint was found with a burial in a gravel pit on the 
Bartell place near Theresa. 

Boltonville site, Washington County (see Brown, 1907, p. 64). — 
In 1886, a farmer near Boltonville found 4 turkey-tail blades beneath 
a stump. 

Pewaukee Lake site, Waukesha County (see Brown, 1907, p. 64, 
and 1930, pp. 99-100). — Some time before 1907 a cache of 6 turkey- 
tail blades of blue hornstone was found near the east shore of Pewau- 
kee Lake. 

Lisbon site, Waukesha County (see Brown, 1930, p. 100).— In or 
before 1930, 3 turkey-tail blades were found with a burial in a mound 
at Lisbon. 

Janesville site, Rock County (see Brown, 1907, p. 64). — In 1903, 
workmen found 4 turkey-tail blades between 5 and 6 inches long and 
fragments of a brownish flint knife about 14 inches long at a depth 
of nearly 4 feet beneath a street in Janesville. 

Stoughton site, Dane County (see Brown, 1915, pp. 178-179). — 
In 1884, at a depth of 4 feet beneath a street were found 2 burials; 
one was accompanied by 90 copper beads and the other was asso- 
ciated with 2 leaf-shaped ceremonial blades of light-colored flint 
between 9 and 10 inches in length. 

New Lisbon site, Juneau County (see Brown, 1907, p. 64). — In 
1904, a cache of 8 turkey-tail blades of blue hornstone was found 
during the cultivation of a field within the limits of New Lisbon. 
Four of these blades were between 5 and 6 inches long. 

SITES AND FINDS IN IOWA 

Sny-Magill Mound 1$, Clayton County (see Beaubien, 1953, 
pp. 57-60). — Mound 43, a component of the Red Ocher culture, 
was 70 feet in diameter and 5 feet high. The mound contained 4 
groups of bundle burials at least one of which might be considered 
a tightly flexed burial inasmuch as many of the bones had been held 
in proper anatomical order by the ligaments. This mound also con- 
tained thick layers of red ocher; 2 large, leaf-shaped ceremonial 
blades of light-colored, pinkish flint; 5 stemmed points (one frag- 
mentary) of chipped stone; 12 spheroidal beads of copper; 1 flint 
side scraper; and 26 sherds. One sherd was grit- tempered and cord- 
marked; the others were also grit-tempered, but were decorated with 



RITZENTHALER AND QUIMBY: RED OCHER CULTURE 261 

a combination of rocker stamp and twisted cord impressions forming 
bands of geometric design. 

Harpers Ferry site, Allamakee County (see Beaubien, 1953, p. 60). 
— In a mound at Harpers Ferry a red ocher floor 30 feet in diameter 
was associated with bundle burials; 1 leaf -shaped ceremonial blade 
of flint; 125 spheroidal beads of copper; 1 bar amulet ("long copper 
bar") of copper; and notched or stemmed flint projectile points. 

SITES AND FINDS IN ILLINOIS 

Beake site, Lake County (Quimby notes).— About 1954, in the 
course of gravel pit operations near the town of Grayslake, a burial 
was found in a grave pit dug into the gravel. With this burial were 
quantities of powdered red ocher; at least 17 turkey- tail blades of 
blue hornstone (blue-gray flint) ; and a large, leaf-shaped ceremonial 
knife of whitish flint that probably had been broken at time of burial. 

Morton site F°ll, Fulton County (see Cole and Deuel, 1937, 
pp. 65-69). — The site is a low, dome-shaped burial mound on a 
ridge of yellow loess. The mound apparently was produced by bring- 
ing in earth to cover up bodies successively laid on the ground. The 
lowermost burials appear to have been placed in pits that had been 
dug in the yellow loess. 

There were flexed and semiflexed burials, disarticulated skeletons 
that may have been bundle burials, and cremations. Some burials 
were accompanied by caches, chiefly of lanceolate blades of chipped 
flint. Burials and /or caches had been sprinkled with powdered red 
ocher in nine instances (profusely in three) and seven were without 
red ocher. 

In addition to ovate-trianguloid cache points there were stemmed 
points, side-notched points, and a turkey-tail blade of chipped flint; 
a lanceolate blade with stem; and large, expanded base drills, scrap- 
ers, cores, and spauls of chipped flint. 

Ground stone objects consisted of two small celts 8 and 9.4 cm. 
long and rectangular in section. There were also cuboids of galena 
and metallic hematite (red ocher) showing facets as if ground for 
paint. 

Artifacts of copper were a rectanguloid plaque with longer sides 
concave; an awl or pin, square in section; and 16 tubular beads. 

Shell objects included 1 pear-shaped, two-hole gorget that had 
been broken and mended, 2 circular gorgets, and 12 beads fashioned 
by boring holes in the apexes of Marginella shells. 



262 FIELDIANA: ANTHROPOLOGY, VOLUME 36 

Pottery was limited to 4 sherds of thick, grit-tempered ware with 
plain exterior, one of which had a basketry or textile impression on 
the interior. 

Animal remains were those of deer, elk, and dog. Objects of 
bone were a cut section of antler, an awl made from a deer meta- 
podial bone and a split metapodial bone of an elk. 

Morton site F°H., Fulton County (see Cole and Deuel, 1937, 
pp. 87, 89-90). — The burials classed as Red Ocher lay on undis- 
turbed yellow loess. Usually they were badly disintegrated and in 
five out of seven cases were covered with red ocher. Such interments 
were apparently made in a slight, natural elevation. The grass and 
top soil were removed and the body laid on the undisturbed loess. 
The earth piled back over the bodies formed a low mound. 

Three of the burials were fully flexed, three were too fragmentary 
to indicate position, and one was disarticulated or disturbed. One 
burial was without any grave goods and three burials had a fair 
amount of grave goods. 

Artifacts from this site are 1 turkey-tail blade of chipped flint, 
3 ovate- trianguloid points of chipped flint, a fragment of copper, a 
cuboid of galena, at least 7 tubular and cylindrical beads of copper, 
a globular bead of shell, 2 circular shell pendants, a crescentic orna- 
ment of shell, and a copper pin or awl that is square in section. 

Morse site, Fulton County (see Morse, 1959, pp. 194-200). — The 
excavated portion of this site consisted of 18 burials, less than 20 
per cent of which had associated grave goods. The skeletons were 
semi-flexed or tightly flexed in pits in a natural ridge of loess over 
which one or possibly two low conjoined mounds had been erected. 
Most of the skeletons had red ocher with them. Artifacts found 
here include about 70 ovate- trianguloid cache points; 4 or more 
straight-stemmed points of chipped flint; some heavy spheroidal and 
tubular beads of copper; 6 barrel-shaped beads of stone; 1 copper 
awl, square in section; some disk-shaped beads of shell; and a conch 
shell container. 

Banner site, Fulton County (see Morse, 1959, p. 201; Wray, 1937). 
—Fifteen flexed burials covered with red ocher were found in a 
mound. Artifacts from this mound were 4 turkey- tail blades of 
dark-colored flint; a 9-inch (leaf-shaped ceremonial) knife of pink 
flint; 27 spheroidal copper beads; 4 beads of marine shell; 1 notched 
projectile point; 1 leaf-shaped blade of dark flint; 1 shell spoon; 
1 piece of galena; and 1 rim sherd of thick grit-tempered pottery 
(Marion Thick). 



RITZENTHALER AND QUIMBY: RED OCHER CULTURE 263 
SITES AND FINDS IN INDIANA 

Kankakee River site, Lake County (see Faulkner, in press). — In 
1919, along the dredged bank of the Kankakee River, there was 
found a cache of 20 lanceolate blades many of which had the classic 
turkey-tail form. They ranged from 2J/£ to 6J4 inches in length and 
were made of bluish gray flint. 

Oak Grove site, Lake County (see Faulkner, in press). — In 1907, 
during grading operations in a sand hill in West Creek Township, 
a burial was found, accompanied by copper artifacts, red ocher on 
blades, 24 turkey-tail and modified turkey-tail blades of blue-gray 
flint, 3 corner-notched blades of light-colored flint, and 4 leaf-shaped 
ceremonial blades of whitish flint. With this burial or nearby were 
46 ovate-trianguloid flint cache points stained with red ocher. 

Dyer site, Lake County (see Quimby, 1960a, p. 5). — This site, 
excavated in 1915 by Mr. Philip C. Schupp, consisted of a burial in 
a deep grave pit in a sand ridge. Within the grave was the flexed 
skeleton of an adult accompanied by burial goods and profuse quan- 
tities of powdered red ocher. With the skeleton were 2 turkey-tail 
blades of dark blue-gray flint (blue hornstone), one 5 inches long, 
the other 5^ inches long (fig. 116); 1 modified turkey-tail blade of 
blue-gray flint 4)/£ inches long (fig. 116); 1 large, leaf-shaped ceremo- 
nial blade of white flint about 19 inches long (fig. 113); 45 thick 
spheroidal beads of copper (fig. 118); 1 copper awl with square sec- 
tion 4?<4 inches long (fig. 119); 3 copper celts 4)4 to 5% inches long 
(fig. 119); 1 bar amulet of ground slate 6% inches long (fig. 122); 
and 1 small flint point with double side notches (fig. 124). 

Brandywine Creek site, Hancock County (see Townsend, 1959, 
pp. 190-192). — In 1911 there was found at this site a cache consist- 
ing of 6 large turkey- tail blades; 1 small bust- type birdstone of white 
quartzite; and 1 stone celt. The turkey- tail blades and birdstone 
were liberally stained with red ocher. Four of the blades were broken 
as if heat shattered. 

Mound site Sh 73, Shelby County (see Dragoo, 1951, p. 29). — A 
small mound excavated around 1895 contained a burial and associ- 
ated artifacts including 6 turkey- tail blades 8 inches long; 1 birdstone 
of ground and polished slate; and some sherds of grit- tempered, cord- 
marked pottery. 

Hasler site, Greene County (see Townsend, 1959, pp. 192-194). — 
This site was discovered during plowing of a low knoll in 1948. With 
a burial in the center of the knoll were found a ball of red ocher and 



264 FIELDIANA: ANTHROPOLOGY, VOLUME 36 

a bust-type birdstone of black and white gneiss. Nearby were found 

2 rectanguloid celts of gabbro; a cache of 21 large turkey- tail blades 
coated with red ocher; and a cache of 5 smaller turkey-tail blades 
also covered with red ocher. 

Site Mr-215, Marshall County (see Faulkner, 1960, pp. 36-38).— 
In 1947, more than 300 whole and broken ovate-trianguloid cache 
points were found in a sand knoll on a farm in Green Township. 

Peterson site, Pulaski County (see Faulkner, 1960, pp. 42-45). — 
Found with a burial in a sand knoll were 7 large, modified turkey- 
tail blades of bluish-gray flint (blue hornstone); 320 ovate-triangu- 
loid cache points; and about 100 thick, tubular beads of copper. 

SITES AND FINDS IN OHIO 

Spetnagle site, Ross County (see Anonymous, 1923, pp. 639-640). — 
In excavating the basement for a dwelling in Chillicothe a cache of 
more than 200 turkey-tail and modified turkey-tail blades was un- 
earthed by a horse and scraper. These blades ranged in length from 

3 inches to 103^ inches and were made of blue-gray flint. The ma- 
jority of the blades were true turkey-tails. 

Kick site, Holmes County (see Case, 1877, p. 267). — In the sum- 
mer of 1870, a cache of 96 ovate-trianguloid points stained with red 
ocher was found in gravel four feet beneath the surface of a pond- 
like depression on a farm in Washington Township. 

SITES AND FINDS IN MICHIGAN 

Moccasin Bluff- A site, Berrien County (see Hills, 1898, p. 77). — 
In 1896-97, a flexed burial and a cache of stone artifacts were found 
at Moccasin Bluff, one mile north of Buchanan. The cache con- 
tained 7 turkey-tail blades; 11 leaf-shaped blanks that could be made 
into turkey-tails merely by notching them; and 1 small axe. The 
blades and blanks were of light blue flint and 12 of the 18 had yel- 
low bases. 

Kimmel site, Berrien County (see Papworth, 1958, pp. 51-56). — 
This site near Berrien Springs on a gravelly terrace of the St. Joseph 
River consisted of a cache and a burial, both of which had been dis- 
turbed in the course of excavation by machinery. The cache con- 
tained 4 crude turkey-tail blades that seem to have been broken 
prior to deposition and at least 450 ovate-trianguloid cache points. 
The burial, an adult in a shallow pit, was associated with 33 short, 



RITZENTHALER AND QUIMBY: RED OCHER CULTURE 265 

tubular beads of copper; 1 ovate-oblong gorget of copper with 2 holes; 
and 1 broken crescent-shaped object of copper. 

Frazier site, Saginaw County (see Smith, 1901, pp. 22-24). — 
Some time prior to 1901, a cache consisting of more than 300 pieces 
was found about a foot beneath the surface in sand on the south side 
of the Tittabawassee River, about 5 miles upstream from Saginaw. 
The cache consisted of large turkey-tail blades about 8 inches long, 
made of dark concretionary chert; small turkey-tail blades about 
3 inches long, of dark concretionary chert, the center black and hard, 
the tips grading off by successive rings to a comparatively soft yel- 
lowish chert; ovate- trianguloid cache points of yellow chert; and a 
few of the latter made into points with wide, square stems. 

Andrews site, Saginaw County (see Smith, 1901, pp. 21-22; Town- 
send, 1959, pp. 219-225; Griffin, oral communication; Greenman, 
oral communication; and Papworth, oral communication). — This 
site is on a sandy ridge, a former strandline of the Algoma stage in 
the Lake Huron basin. Grave pits contained flexed burials, bundle 
burials, and cremations, powdered red ocher, and burial goods. Arti- 
facts include turkey-tail blades of dark-colored flint; 115 ovate-tri- 
anguloid cache points; side-notched and square-stemmed points of 
chipped flint; copper celts; stone celts; heavy awls of copper, square 
in section; smaller copper awls and needles; cylindrical and spheroidal 
beads of copper; 1 copper harpoon point with multiple barbs on one 
side only; and 4 birdstones. A detailed report on the recent exca- 
vations at this site is being prepared by the University of Michigan. 

HaUiner site, Alpena County (oral communication from Mr. 
Gerald Haltiner). — At a site 7 miles north of Alpena, 63 ovate- 
trianguloid points were found in a cache. These points ranged in 
length from 13^ to 3 inches; some were stained with red ocher. 

SITES AND FINDS IN ONTARIO 

Killarney Bay Mound, Manitoulin District (see Greenman, 1953, 
p. 177; 1954, p. 4, and oral communication). — Burials found in pits 
beneath a burial mound on a beach ridge 28 feet above the level of 
Lake Huron were associated with various items that include the fol- 
lowing: more than 100 "coarse cache blades" stained with red ocher; 
1 small turkey-tail blade; copper beads; large copper awls, square in 
section; narrow copper celts; 2 tubular pipes of stone; 1 large flint 
blade oval at each end; several large, corner-notched blades of flint; 
and some sherds of grit-tempered pottery. 



H 

H 
i— i 
CO 

GO 

D 
O 
i— i 

05 g 

<5 o 

> c 

r^ °» 

< +* 

Q S 

Z £ 

^ + 

DO CJ 

3 * 

05 g 

05 2 

H § 

O ^oj 

' i J to 

05 % 

r <" 

O "-S 

GO X 






a(i;AU05[oa 

uasjriBj 

Buio^nB^w. 

joaih JIOAV 

siUH ^HO 

ailiASuaqda^s 

Xbavbi^bh 

uoaq 
uo}3uuisbm. 



** lH © 



3JJB J UO^XBq «-* *° 

ailiASuaiijj, whio 



+ + Tt 



^j 0> 

.s s 

I— O 

s s 

'c ^ 
o o 



d, a> c8 

O 



S c 
"2 ' s 

jd a> 

B-S 

M 

a> o 

-I 

s| 

2 is 
in a) 

s ts 

o > 

wo 



bo 
m 
o 

s 

I 

c 



a; 



0) 



• t» 

. o> 

■a HI *< 

v s fi « 

C <D.S-T3 

o po 'g, o> 

« £ a> - 



09 



33 "2 is * b o? 



es «-, « 
-O 3 .S 

o> -2 ^ 

a I § 

o C a 

« •£ w 

.3 >> £ -35 



js .a 



** o 



- ■— ■- ~ 



.2 
o 
P4 



.* +3 

'& "a 

73 H 05 



5 

i 

S 



a> a> 

a o, 
o o 
O U 



£ >» 
C 73 

° B. 



C 01 
ft 3 

%% 

M » 

03 0> 

o> o 

- 9 S 



7j 



266 



° < 
£ 1 



8|[IAUO^Oa 

Btuo^nB^ 

J9A !H Jl°M 

S IUH 1I«MO 

aHjAsuaqda^s 

3fai[SBJV 

Xbmbi{3bjj 

5faajQ qsBjoj^ 

uoaq 

uo)3uiiisba^ voj 

3JJBJ uo^X^q 

anjASuaiqj, 



x x 



X * X 



09 


j — | 


~ 


CL 


s 


A 


5 


■Si 


X 


0> 


_2 







•c 


« 


r: 


'5. 


1 


1-. 


£ 


B 


v; 



£5 T3 

bo aj 



be 


— 




ti 


"8 


if: 


— 
x 


<D 


0) 


a 
•E 


ed 


■ 



3 C 

,5 >> 



XT. 

~ 

-^ 

(V Q> 
CO — . 

•S -S 
c " 

eg 

x J 



^r -^ .3 ;>> — (= 






>> 

h 

o 
a 

c 
js 

tj 
o 
o 



few 

o 
PLh 



: "° 

jo .2 

•S w 

=* & 



a 
a 

IS J3 

O U 



co g 

T3 X! 







267 



J8UUBQ i-h ^ 

asjoj^ 



s 



o 

5 <! Hod uo^joh 

J 



^ <N 



«> i-l 






a^Bag *-< t- 

OBq rip puoj[ ' H 

na^J^a rn 
uoqsiq M.ajsj 

uo;q3no;s <n 
ailjAsauBf » 

uoqsrj w 

aa>iriBA\a { j w 



« 8 

> I 

3 *» 

.2 £ 
o o 



rt 



■-.ft 



« C9 ? 



in 

JS ft 

-Q o> 

S-S 

o> cj 

_L 'P 

0) o 

!l 



o > 
« O 



w> • • • • • • 

m 

o 

bo 

H '■'■'■'■'■ '• 
'3 

1 ':':::: : 

C 

3 ..... ■ 

■H .... 

I • • • a • • 

*^ s^ i a -I 

c 2 fl <».2"0 " s 

2 f , B & a s : e 

15 ,£5 .fa 9 3 C "3 e« 
n 

ft. 



T3 

. cJ 

CO g 

T3 .ft 

c3 t-, 

I J 

O g 



'O +j j2 



o 

^ > 

aj 2 "a! 



£ -3 

ft ft 
ft ft 
o o 
O O 






ft JS 
ft^g 

O f3 



gg 
+o 

G x 

D.-S 

^ o 

ft s 

8- 1 

bfl B 

a t3 

a> o 

* s 



M 



268 



o 



jauuBg "* 

a&ioj^ «-< 

fled uo^joj^ *» 



x x 



X X X X 



XXX 



<M CO 

H ol J UOIJOW -H 



X X X x 



z 



ajjBag 

Hi3bj^-Xus 

DB7 np puoj 

ii*m*s 

uoqsiq A\a^ 

uo;q3no;s 

aijiAsauBf 

uoqsiq 

aaijnBAvaj 





5 


-s 








« « K 


. 




60 o "B 


. 




Igor 
ellb 
bea 




a 

— 


a 


— 


I 

73 


DC 


i 


CO 

i 



C8 .2 

.5 3 
'5 § 



3'c 



-C eu o 



gd 



€ 6 



_^Q 






o 

3 C 

.3 % 

O O 









O 



0) 



c 
o. 



3 
O) CU - 

a a'S 
a, a-r 

CD 

o 



s 



c3 rt 

O 3 
_ « -° 
| Si! 

i. » c 

13 f^ W 
•E 

3 

n 



a 

3 


E 
a 

— " 03 

2 c 

c 3 



u 



e8 

•n 

3 C 



S ? 



be . 

« 01 



JQ* 



M«C r= 



O X. 



22 



►^ C C C 

kJ H H H 



269 



s r 



3 



^!H 



ajSBU^ads 



T ax 



+ + + 

XXX 



I 



< 

V. 



aaupiBjj 

sAvaapuy 

jaizBJ^j 

|8UIUIIX 

jaA"Q »h 

J9 l SB H 

82, MS 

^aajQ auiAvXpuBJa 

uos-ia^aj 



+ + 

X X 



"5 H M 



eg 

>> 
8.3 

> s* 

c -^ 

c s • 
«S 'S : 

.2 s : 

a i* ■ 
o o • 

£ 9 : 

2 £ -S • 
a 

IS 
o 



J3 ft 
— a> 

0) o 

«g| 

<D 3 

Q £ 



o > 
W O 



IT. 



W 



v. S'E § 



3 S «e 

-^ ft s> 

^ 4) 5 
3 



O) o 



a> as 
-I 

o c 
« "5 



•9 g> 

ft 3 



ft S 

o -g 



c > 



2 is M 



m 

O 



j2 <W 



a) a> 
ft ft 

— ft 



> >> 

u a> 
a) 



ft <S 
£ 

O O O P 



o o 



270 



sf 



a[3Biqads 



x x 



< 

"Z 

O 



o I 

S3 J 
o j 

5 I 

I 



i ax 

jaupiBjj 
sAvajpuy 

jynja uisbdooj^ 
j3A"a 

J3JSBJJ 

sz qs 

JJ33J3 9UIA\^pUBjg 

uosja;aj 

3A0Jf) JfB() 
J3AI^J 33J{BJ{UB5J 



XX XX X 



X X X X X X 



X X XX 



X 



X 

X X 

X 

X 

X 

X XX 















a 


^ 


a 






S 


: ai 


T 






>- 

6 


.c 


r: 




a 

X 


"^ 


0J 

— 


J5 

-r 


r; 


1 


* 




rJ 


0) 


01 


a 


03 


— 


-~ 


0) 


X 


-Q 


— 


ai 


c 


to 


~ 



T3 03 



a .S 
I S 

^5 



> 
o 


£ 






O 


a) 






- 


5 


5 


">. 


o o 



•c M 

XI 



CO 



o 
a 

c 
iS 
xl 
o 
o 

fe W 

+-> 
o 
Ph 






a> a> oj 
o o.2 

03 03 g 

a o.-f= 

a a- ~ 

03 £ £ * 



•2 

Xi 

Xi 



cS rt 



C 

— 03 

O C 

f? 3 



t£ 



O 58 



^ j> _ s — 



o 


3 


V 


Xi 




a 


9) 


3 


~rz 


i 


a 


(X, PQ 



a> ■ V 


> "c3 


x • xi 


rt -2 


03 • o 


u o 


5C W O 


m te 


.sl^ 


o »-. 


«> tJ ** 


— ; aJ 


.2 £ o 




j- a; a> 


03 -5 


3 £ 03 


c c 



aj 03 



.2 « 

c -P 



3 



271 



272 FIELDIANA: ANTHROPOLOGY, VOLUME 36 

ACKNOWLEDGMENTS 

We wish to thank Miss Lillian A. Ross, Associate Editor of Scien- 
tific Publications, for her editorial work in our behalf. We also wish 
to thank Dr. James B. Griffin, Dr. Emerson F. Greenman, Dr. Mark 
Papworth, and Dr. Lewis Binford for providing us with information 
about sites they had excavated. Mr. Mark Ritter, while a student 
at the University of Wisconsin, helped us survey published sources 
of information. 

The photographs used to illustrate this paper are from Milwaukee 
Public Museum and Chicago Natural History Museum. Figures 
113, 116, 118, 119, 122, and 124 are Chicago Natural History Mu- 
seum photographs, and figures 114, 115, 117, 120, 121, and 123 are 
Milwaukee Public Museum photographs. 



RITZENTHALER AND QUIMBY: RED OCHER CULTURE 273 

REFERENCES 

Anonymous 

1923. The Spetnagle cache of flint spear points. Ohio Archaeological and His- 
torical Publications, vol. 32, pp. 639-640. Columbus. 

1951. A Red Ocher site in Peoria County? Illinois State Archaeological Society, 
n.s., vol. 1, p. 118. 

Baerreis, David A., Daifuku, Hiroshi, and Lundsted, James E. 

1954. The burial complex of the Reigh site, Winnebago County, Wisconsin. 
The Wisconsin Archeologist, vol. 35, no. 1, pp. 1-36. 

Beaubien, Paul L. 

1953. Cultural variation within two Woodland Mound groups of northeastern 
Iowa. American Antiquity, vol. 19, no. 1, pp. 56-66. 

Brown, Charles E. 

1907. The implement caches of the Wisconsin Indians. The Wisconsin Arche- 
ologist, vol. 6, no. 2, pp. 47-70. 

1915. Ceremonial knives. The Wisconsin Archeologist, vol. 13, no. 4, pp. 176- 
181. 

1916. Archaeological history of Milwaukee County. The Wisconsin Archeolo- 
gist, vol. 15, no. 2, pp. 24-105. 

1924. Indian gravel pit burials in Wisconsin. The Wisconsin Archeologist, 
vol. 3, no. 3, pp. 65-82. 

1930. "Turkey-tail" points. The Wisconsin Archeologist, vol. 9, no. 2, pp. 99- 
103. 

1940. Red paint with Wisconsin burials. The Wisconsin Archeologist, vol. 21, 
no. 4, pp. 74-76. 

Case, H. B. 

1877. Flint implements in Holmes County, Ohio. Annual Report of the Smith- 
sonian Institution for the year 1877, p. 267. 

Cole, Fay-Cooper, and Deuel, Thorne 

1937. Rediscovering Illinois. University of Chicago Press. 

Crane, H. R., and Griffin, James B. 

1958. University of Michigan radiocarbon dates II. Science, vol. 127, no. 3306, 
pp. 1098-1105. 

1959. University of Michigan radiocarbon dates IV. American Journal of 
Science, Radiocarbon Supplement, vol. I, pp. 173-198. 

1960. University of Michigan radiocarbon dates V. American Journal of Sci- 
ence, Radiocarbon Supplement, vol. II, pp. 31-48. 

Cunningham, Wilbur M. 

1948. A study of the Glacial Kame culture. University of Michigan, Occa- 
sional Contributions, Museum of Anthropology, no. 12. 

Dragoo, Don W. 

1951. Archaeological survey of Shelby County, Indiana. The Indiana His- 
torical Bureau, Indianapolis. 

Falge, Louis 

1915. Indian remains in Manitowoc County. The Wisconsin Archeologist, 
vol. 14, no. 4, pp. 121-164. 



274 FIELDIANA: ANTHROPOLOGY, VOLUME 36 

Faulkner, Charles H. 

1960. The Red Ocher culture: An early burial complex in northern Indiana. 
The Wisconsin Archeologist, vol. 41, no. 2, pp. 35-49. 

In press. The significance of some red ocher-like artifacts from Lake County, 
Indiana. The Wisconsin Archeologist, vol. 43, no. 1. 

Fox, George R. 

1916. Outagamie County antiquities. The Wisconsin Archeologist, vol. 15, 
no. 1, pp. 1-21. 

Gerend, Alphonse 

1920. Sheboygan County. The Wisconsin Archeologist, vol. 19, no. 3, pp. 121- 
192. 

Greenman, Emerson F. 

1953. Review of Sixty years of Ontario archaeology, by K. E. Kidd, and The 
archaeology of the upper Great Lakes area, by George I. Quimby, in Archa- 
eology of Eastern United States. American Antiquity, vol. 19, pp. 176-177. 

1954. University of Michigan explorations. Michigan Archaeological Society 
News, vol. 1, no. 2, pp. 4-5 (mimeographed). Ann Arbor. 

Hills, Leslie W. 

1898. Correspondence section. The American Archaeologist, vol. 2, part 3, 
p. 77. 

Morse, Dan F. 

1959. Preliminary report on a Red Ocher mound at the Morse site, Fulton 
County, Illinois. Papers of the Michigan Academy of Science, Arts, and 
Letters, vol. 44, pp. 193-207. 

Niehoff, Arthur 

1959. Beads from a Red Ocher burial in Ozaukee County. The Wisconsin 
Archaeologist, vol. 40, no. 1, pp. 25-28. 

Papworth, Mark 

1958. Artifacts from the Kimmel site, Berrien Springs, Michigan. Michigan 
Archaeologist, vol. 4, no. 3, pp. 51-56. 

Quimby, George I. 

1957. An Old Copper site? at Port Washington. The Wisconsin Archeologist, 
vol. 38, no. 1, pp. 1-5. 

1958. Late Archaic culture and the Algoma beach in the Lake Michigan Basin. 
The Wisconsin Archeologist, vol. 39, no. 3, pp. 175-179. 

1960a. Burial yields clews to Red Ocher culture. Chicago Natural History 
Museum Bulletin, vol. 31, no. 2, p. 5. 

1960b. Indian life in the upper Great Lakes, 11,000 B.C. to A.D. 1800. Univer- 
sity of Chicago Press. 

RlTZENTHALER, ROBERT 

1957. Reigh site report. Number 3. The Wisconsin Archeologist, vol. 33, 
no. 4, pp. 278-310. 

RlTZENTHALER, ROBERT, and NlEHOFF, ARTHUR 

1958. A Red Ocher burial in Ozaukee County. The Wisconsin Archeologist, 
vol. 39, no. 2, pp. 115-120. 



RITZENTHALER AND QUIMBY: RED OCHER CULTURE 275 

Shumacher, J. P. 

1918. Indian remains in Door County. The Wisconsin Archeologist, vol. 16, 
no. 4, pp. 125-145. 

Smith, Harlan I. 

1901. The Saginaw Valley collection. American Museum of Natural History, 
Supplement to American Museum Journal, vol. 1, no. 12, pp. 1-24. 

Townsend, Earl C, Jr. 

1959. Birdstones of the North American Indian. Indianapolis, Indiana. 

Wray, Donald E. 

1937. A Red Ocher mound in Fulton County. Transactions of the Illinois 
Academy of Science, vol. 30, part 2, p. 82. 



' ' m 




zm 



«*■'''■' '•'<".•-' 'V*?,' (.',.'• , ;:;''k ■*■''''';■; tyi'y 1 -'. |l; 
'''''.'• •'■^■'■-"•. '■•■'>'■■'''*- Wye ■','' ■'.','--/',-•>' >' -.' '•' 



'v'M'i. v . i"<" 



■■■■ 



ffili&b 



aNfl& 



1 



S&®2 






■ 



Mr 



111 

/ - ■ :